Here’s a quick overview:
Adware – delivers bad ads and can infect your computer with additional malware.
Bots – malicious code engineered to perform specific tasks. They can be both harmless and malicious. More on bad bots in Daily Security Tip coming soon.
Bug – cyber security bugs (flaw in software) open up security holes in computer systems that cyber criminals can take advantage of. In this context, bugs can allow attackers to gain access to a system and do irreparable damage.
Ransomware – a type of malware that encrypts the victim’s data and demands a ransom in order to provide the decryption key. More info on how to protect yourself against it here.
Rootkit – a type of malicious software (but not always) which gives the attackers privileged access to a computer. A rootkit is activated before the operating system boots up, so antivirus can’t detect it.
Spyware – a type of malware that will spy on your activity (browsing habits, keystrokes, financial data, etc.) and send the information to servers controlled by cyber criminals.
Trojan Horse – malware that’s able to disguise itself as a normal file, to trick victims into downloading and installing more malware on their devices.
Virus – a form of malware that can copy itself so it can spread to other computers. Viruses attach themselves to other computer programs and execute malicious commands when the victim uses those compromised programs. Thus, viruses rely on the victim’s activity to spread.
Worm – a type of malware that exploits security holes in operating systems. Worms use the infected system’s resources and self-replicate. They spread independently, without requiring the victim to do anything.
Here’s a more in-depth read about the main types of malware.